The term pneumonia usually refers to a syndrome caused by acute infection involving the lung parenchyma or interstitium usually due to bacteria and characterized by consolidation,both clinical and radiological,of a part of one or both lungs.The causative organisms can also be virus,parasites,mycobacteria and fungi.When noninfectious agents like chemicals and radiation cause pneumonia,the term pneumonia is used.
1. Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).
2. Hospital acquired (nosocomial) pneumonia.
3. Aspiration pneumonia.
4. Pneumonia in the immunocompromised bost including AIDS.
5. Recurrent pneumonia.
`1. Bacteria -- Streptococcus pneumoniae,Mycoplasma pneumonia, Chlamydia pneumoniae,H. influenzae, Branhamella catarrhalis. Also M. tuberculosis,anaerobes,Gram negative pathogens and Staph. Aureus.
2. Primary atypical -- (a) Viral -- Psittacosis-ornithosis group, respiratory syncitial virus, measles and influenza, cytomegalovirus,adenviruses, varicella,herpes zoster,lymphocytic choriomeningitis.(b) Rickettsial -- Coxiella burneti (Q fever). (c) Mycoplasmal -- mycoplasma pneumoniae,Stevens-Johnson syndrome.
3. Protozoal -- Entamoeba histolytica.
4. Yeast and fungi -- Actinomycosis,aspergillosis,nocardiosis,histoplasmosis.
5.Chemical pneumonia -- (a) Aspiration of vomit.(b) Dysphagic pneumonia -- pharyngeal diverticulum, achalasia cardia, hiatus hernia or oesophageal stricture.(c) Lipoid pneumonia -- Kerosene,paraffin,petroleum.(d) Toxic gases and smokes.
Symptoms:Onset often sudden although sometimes it follows a minor respiratory infection of a few days duration.
1. General symptoms of infection -- Malaise,fever,chills and rigors,vomiting; in the elderly confusion and disorientation.
2. Pulmonary symptoms -- Dyspnoea,cough,and sputum which is often blood-stained or rusty and difficult to expectorate.
3. Pleural symptoms -- Pain aggravated by cough, deep breath or movement,usually localised to site of inflammation.
Clinical treatment results
There were 50 cases of bacterial pneumonia adopted the pure traditional Chinese medicine therapy, all cases recovered, body temperature decreased to normal level averagely in 3 days, white blood cells decreased to normal level averagely in 5 days and lungs completely recovered to normal state averagely in 7.8 days.
There were 100 cases of viral pneumonia adopted the pure traditional Chinese medicine therapy, all cases recovered, body temperature decreased to normal level averagely in 3.8 days, white blood cells decreased to normal level averagely in 7.9 days and pathological changes is cured in 12 days.
There were 40 cases of mycoplasma pneumomia adopted the pure traditional Chinese medicine; completely recovered (clinical symptoms disappeared, body temperature and white blood cells decreased to normal level and x-ray examination became normal) were 38 cases, there were 2 cases turned out better (clinical symptoms disappeared, body temperature and white blood cells decreased to normal level and x-ray examination is subnormal) with average 4 days to decrease body temperature.