Polycystic kidney or cystic disease of kidney includes a group of single or multiple cysts which present in different parts of kidney. Usually, multiple cyst or polycystic is more often occurred, it may affect one or both of kidneys. This disease is more often seen in 35-45 years old people. The main symptoms are such as bloating of the abdomen, abdominal pain (increased in physical exertion, decreased in lying position), swelling of abdomen, hypertension, hematuria, anemia and small amount of patients may have erythrocytosis; 50% of patients may accompanied with cysts of liver, pancreas, lung, spleen, bone, prostate, ovary and thyroid; small amount of patients may even have tumor of the cerebral small veins. At the same time, most of the patients developed nephritis (inflammation of kidney) and nephrolithiasis (stones in kidney). The patients of the late stage will have chronic renal failure. If the patient is newborn or infant, it will accompanied with other mutations and usually die in the first month of life.
The modern medicine still not know the cause of this disease clearly, probably it’s caused by the genetic factor; in adult this disease is shown fully (dominant) while in child this disease is hidden (recessive).
The diagnose of this disease must be based on family history, middle-aged person will have abdominal and waist pain or twitching pain, along with hematuria or unknown etiology of renal failure but has non-significant anemia. The kidney is enlarged during inspection. The abdominal x-ray may reveals enlargement of kidney borders. The kidney phlebography may show the distension of renal pelvis and semilunar form of renal calices. The ultrasound examination may point out the presence of cysts with fluid and information about it’s size and localization.
The modern medicine till now is lack of efficient treatment against this disease, it is mainly directed to treat by the symptomatic therapy (inflammation of urinary tract, stones, blockades), avoiding the injury of urinary tract during inspection. Recently, there were peoples reported that cyst puncture and sclerosis with ethanol are used to treat single cyst as a closed-therapy. While late stage patients with uraemia are suggested to do kidney transplantation.
In Chinese medicine, this disease is belongs to zheng ji (accumulative of diseases), pi kuai (cysts), fu tong (abdominal pain), niao bai (proteinuria) and gan yang (liver s function improper) and so on. Ling Shu-the 47th chapter said that the kidney is very important and as the sensitive organ (easily injured) which reflected by waist pain. The congenital insufficiency of body system causes the lack of kidney Qi (energy) and then resulted in hypofunction of kidney and inner blockade by e xue (bad blood), gradually forming cysts; once the disease is prolonged, it will decrease kidney Qi, insufficiency of liver s Yang, partially stop of kidney s metabolism, oliguria, edema, headache and others, lastly it will leads to terminal stage and cause the death of the patient.
Clinical treatment results
There were 15 cases that adopted the pure traditional Chinese medical therapy; all cases turned out better after taking of medicine for 3 months. Urine became normal; 9 abnormal cases before treatment, 5 cases became normal after treatment and 4 cases became better. Blood pressure: 9 abnormal cases before treatment, 4 cases became normal and 5 cases became better.